- Bahia: Salvador, Cachoeira, Lençóis, Morro de São Paulo, Ilhéus, Itacaré, Porto Seguro, Arraial d’Ajuda, Trancoso, Chapada Diamantina National Park, Abrolhos Marine National Park
- Pernambuco: Recife, Olinda, Itamaracá, Igarassu, Caruaru, Porto de Galinhas, New Jerusalem, Garanhuns, Triunfo, Fernando de Noronha, Catimbau Valley, Petrolina
- Ceará: Fortaleza, Aracati, Canoa Quebrada, Jericoacoara, Tatajuba, Camocim, Sobral, Baturité, Ubajara National Park, Juazeiro do Norte
- Sergipe: Aracaju, Laranjeiras, São Cristóvão, Estância, Propriá
- Alagoas: Maceió, Maragogi, Penedo, Barra de São Miguel, Paripueira, Porto de Pedras
- Paraíba: João Pessoa, Campina Grande, Cabedelo, Ingá, Baía da Traição, Sousa
Rio Grande do Norte: Natal, Mossoró, Tibau do Sul, Tibau, Parnamirim, Touros, São Miguel do Gostoso, Galinhos, Caicó, Macau, Martins, Maxaranguape, Cape São Roque
- Piauí: Teresina, Sete Cidades National Park, Parnaíba, Serra da Capivara National Park
- Maranhão: São Luís, Lençóis Maranhenses National Park, Alcântara, Imperatriz, Carolina
The Northeast Region of Brazil (Portuguese: Região Nordeste do Brasil) is one of the five official and political regions of the country according to the Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. For the socio-geographic area see Nordeste (socio-geographic division). Of Brazil’s twenty-six states, it comprises nine: Maranhão, Piauí, Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia, along with the Fernando de Noronha archipelago (formerly a separate territory, now part of Pernambuco).
Chiefly known as Nordeste (“Northeast”) in Brazil, this region was the first to be discovered and colonized by the Portuguese and other European peoples, playing a crucial role in the country’s history. Nordeste’s dialects and rich culture, including its folklore, cuisines, music, and literature, became the most easily distinguishable across the country. To this day, Nordeste is widely recognized for its history and culture, as well as for its beautiful natural sights and its hot weather.
Nordeste stretches from the Atlantic seaboard in the northeast and southeast, northwest and west to the Amazon Basin and south through the Espinhaço highlands in southern Bahia. It encloses the São Francisco River and drainage basin, which were instrumental in the exploration, settlement and economic development of the region. The region lies entirely within the earth’s tropical zone and encompasses Caatinga, Atlantic Forest and part of the Cerrado ecoregions. The climate is hot and semi-arid, varying from xeric in Caatinga, to mesic in Cerrado and hydric in the Atlantic Forest.
The Northeast Region represents 18% of Brazilian territory, has a population of 53.6 million people, 28% of the total population of the country, and contributes 13.4% (2011) of Brazil’s GDP. Nearly three-quarters of the population live in urban areas clustered along the Atlantic coast and about 15 million people live in the hinterland. It is an impoverished region: 58% of the population lives in poverty, defined as less than $2/day.
Each of the states’ capitals is also its largest cities, and they include Recife, Salvador, Fortaleza and São Luís, all lying on the Atlantic coast, each with a population above a million inhabitants.
Nordeste has nine international airports, and the region has the second largest number of passengers (roughly 20%) in Brazil.